Breathing Organ
Chicken breathe using lungs and air bags (air sacs). In general, the respiratory system of birds is supported by several organs, namely the nostrils, larinx, trachea, srinx, bronkhi, lungs, air sacs and hollow bones (North, 1978) and shown in the picture. Generally described as follows:

Nostrils (nares anteriores). Nostrils (nares anteriores). Numbered pair, located on the dorsal base of the rostrum and a first inlet connected to the outside. Posteriores nares (the nostrils), located on the palate and just one piece in the middle (Radiopoetrao, 1991).

Larink (larynx). Larink supported by cartilage and cartilage arytenoidea cricoidea totaling pair (Radiopoetra, 1991).

Trachea (trachea). Trachea is a continuation of larink caudal direction. The form of a ribbon that has rings of bone called the annulus trachealis (Radiopoetra, 1991).

Srink / vocal cords (srynx). Srink bifurcatio contained in the tracheae, composed of several trachealis in the caudal annulus and annulus bronchialis the cranial region. It blocks a wide part called the tympanum (Radiopoetro, 1991). Adam’s vocal cords or parts under the trachea (bronchi branch into two) is resulting in sound in birds. The vocal cords are the only parts of the respiratory apparatus capable of producing sound, while Adam’s apple is forming part sound (Nesheim et al., 1979; Akoso, 1993).
Description: 1. Nares, 2. Glottis, 3. Larynx, 4. Trachea, 5. Syrinx, 6. Bronchi and 7. Pulmo
The parts of the respiratory organs of chicken

Bronchi (bronkhi). Bronkhi is branching from the trachea to the right and left (bronchus dexter and sinister broncus), with a place called bifurcatio branching trachea. The trachea is divided into lateral bronchi, each of which is divided into parabronchi (Radiopoetro, 1991).

Lung (lung / pulmonary). The lungs are located on the ends of a pair bronkhi numbered and attached to the dorsal thorax. The lungs are encased by a membrane called the pleura (Radiopoetro, 1991). Lung is the organ that is very important role in breathing. Its main functions to meet the oxygen needed by the body for burning and for the formation of labor. Also serves to remove residual combustion such as carbon dioxide and water vapor. Lung structure is very stiff cock and during breathing movements occur only slightly inflate and deflate (Akoso, 1993).

Air bag (air sacs). Air sac (saccus pneumaticus) consists of a water sac / saccus: abdominal (aa / exists between intestinal folds), thoracalis anterior (ata / located on the side wall of the body in the chest cavity side down), thoracalis posterior (atp / located behind the anterior thoracalis) , interclavicularis (ai / located in the median, only one fruit and relate to both lungs) and cervical (ac / located in the neck and totaled two pairs). All the parts are related sacs water pnumaticus cavity (Radiopoetro, 1991).

Air sac is a cavity with walls so thin and delicate tissue difficult to recognize the deflated position. Chickens dead air sacs known difficult, because the deflated position, so it needs careful monitoring during surgery carcass (Akoso, 1993). Air sacs in addition to help in the process of breathing in fly time (bertarung. ed.) Also works.

i. Helps maintain the temperature outside the influence of external circumstances.
ii. Help amplify the sound.
iii. Relieve body.
iv. Body float in the air.
v. Help the diffusion of blood to be excreted through the lungs as water vapor.
The parts of the air bag
Mechanism of Breathing

Lying lung stick to the ribs on the top of the chest cavity. Inhaled air because the pressure will go into the air sacs and redistributed into or out of the lungs. Air distribution for supporting respiratory muscle contraction activity in birds there are two ways, the inspiration and expiration (Neheim et al., 1979).

In contrast to mammals, birds have smaller lungs that require support in the form of air sacs and hollow bones (North, 1978). Mechanism of action of breathing in chickens with the help of air bags in two ways, namely at rest and during flight (bertarung. ed.).

Break. At break time during inspiration, moving toward cranioventral costae, so thornealis cavity enlarges, the lungs expand and air into the lungs. At the time of expiration, costae back in its original position, thornealis smaller cavity, the lungs deflate and the air out. Some of the expiratory muscle function is intercostalis musculus internus, musculus rectus abdominis, musculus musculus obliquus abdominis externus and transversus abdominis.

Fly. At the time fly (bertarung. ed.) Whose function is saccus interclavicularis and axillary saccus. If the wing lowered saccus axillary squeezed, so saccus interclavicularis become loose, and vice versa if the wings are raised saccus axillary enlarged and saccus interclavicularis shrink. At these events will result in the change of the air in the lungs (Radiopoetra, 1991).

Respiration and temperature settings Chicken

Poultry has a complex mechanism to maintain body temperature by releasing heat and producing. Expenditure on poultry body heat is important because birds do not have sweat glands, so that the work of the lungs and air sac is very important to lower the temperature on the body. Settings balance of water and heat release process is heavily influenced by inspiration through the nose, respiratory tract, lungs and air sacs (Nesheim et al., 1979).

To maintain the body temperature of poultry using a complex mechanism by setting the production and release of heat:

Temperatures below 80 ^ F. At ambient temperature conditions below 80 ^ F poultry do defense mechanisms of the body temperature through radiation, convection and conduction. Disposal of body heat through the entire surface of the body, especially the unfeathered and about 40% through the head (mouth, nose, comb, wattles and skin).

Temperatures above 80 ^ F. At ambient temperature conditions above 80 ^ F release heat through the evaporation mechanism for disposal of water vapor through the respiratory tract (panting). Panting is an important mechanism because the birds will try to maintain a constant body temperature (below ambient temperature) at high ambient temperature conditions (Nesheim et al., 1979). In the chicken skelter conditions experienced heat stress (heat stress) so that it looks gasp, the position of the body touching the ground and the plume enforced and sometimes chicken is always drinking to keep the balance of water and the release of body heat.

source: Ayam Jagoan

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